The First 50 Years of Japanese-Hungarian Commercial Relations

Chapters from Sándor Kiss's book In Allurement of Japan

Book Presentation for Josai University
at Budapest Business School
on 17 of February, 2017

Hungary and Japan had some similarities in foreign trade during the period from 1860 to 1880. Both countries were inexperienced, Japan for her isolation and Hungary for her subservience under Austria. But following the Meiji restoration in 1868 and the Austro-Hungarian Compromise (妥協) in 1867, both countries were able to engage in international trade, sending their goods and products onto the world market. As newcomers, both countries had much to learn. Their competitors were shrewd, calculating traders hungry for profit. It would take decades for both countries to become equal trading partners. Both Japan and Hungary paid a heavy price for lack of practice. There is one more shared characteristic: namely that Japan and Hungary began modernizing their economies about the same time as well.

State relations

1867 was the year when the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy – the second largest state in Europe – was formed. Hungary gained independence in her economy but foreign affairs, military and finance were operated commonly under Franz Joseph, the first Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Common expenditures were allocated 70% to Austria and 30% to Hungary respectively. Hungary became partially independent after 350 years of Habsburg reign.

As an almost landlocked country, Austria had no presence on the seas. Nevertheless, Austria had long wished for a sizable fleet and access overseas markets. In the same year when the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was established, an expedition was sent to the Far East and South America headed by Rear Admiral Anton von Petz. The joint delegation of Monarchy reached Yokohama, Japan on 2nd of October 1869. The Signing ceremony of the first Treaty of Friendship, Trade and Sailing between our countries was held on 18th October. The ratification of the treaty took two years. The treaty was unequal because the Japanese side got less favorable treatment and fewer advantages. To tell it frankly in the 13 member delegation there were 4 Hungarians, all of them in minor positions. The treaty was prepared by the British Embassy in Tokyo.

An exhibition was organized in Yokohama where products of 78 companies were on display. Visitors could inspect and taste Hungarian products such as Dreher beer, white and red wines from Pécs, Pozsony (now Bratislava in Slovakia) and Sopron. Of course Tokaji aszú “Wine of the Kings, King of the Wines” from Earl Zichy estate was leading the rank. The world famous milled products of First Mill in Budapest went on display. Companies from Austria put on display machinery, military products, measuring equipments, clocks, optical products, furniture, glass and porcelain ware, textile of different kinds, ladies fashion items and jewelry.

The most noteworthy event in October 1869 in Japan was the visit of the Austro-Hungarian Expedition. The entertaining program for Japan was well prepared as the daily navy musician parade in Yokohama harbor but also institutes were carefully selected for book and objects donations. Among the gifts offered to the Emperor of Japan as a token of the special sympathy and friendship of the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, the Bösendorfer piano was particularly admired by his Majesty. This was the first piano to arrive to Japan. On his request Baron Ransonnett gave a concert which delighted the eighteen-year-old Emperor, who wished that lessons on the forte-piano should be granted to his official musicians. “It is interesting to know that his Imperial Majesty picked out a piece of Chopin’s On the Piazetta and an Austrian polka” wrote the Japan Times.

During this period, English, American, French and Dutch goods were painfully and slowly introduced to Japan. The Austrian and Hungarian Exhibition was a great stimulus in this regard, and experienced traders noted that “Austria is not ashamed boldly to proclaim her object; she comes to trade, and with her Embassy (i.e. Expedition), she sends samples of what she has to sell.

It was an exciting time for the foreign traders in Japan, who were afraid of the strong competition of cheaper goods that might come from the Monarchy. Yes, it was the goal of the mission but an obvious problem was that the transportation cost from Austria was higher than from those countries. Frankly speaking there were only few competitive export products for Japan from the Monarchy.

The signing of the treaty opened the way for commercial relations. Alexander Hübner, a famous senior Austrian diplomat, was travelling in Japan in 1871. His opinion was that Austria had no political and commercial interest in Japan at that time.[1] Hübner’s observation was based on the facts and it took several years to set up the first Austro-Hungarian Legation in Tsukiji in Tokyo in 1875. We bought Oscar Heeren’s house with a Japanese garden, which was burnt-out next year and the legation moved to several places during the next 20 years. Until 1875 the representation for commercial matters was provided by British consuls, but even after that a strong relation remained. Our own consulate in Yokohama was established in 1876 and it also served as legation in 1880. The rank of legation was raised to that of an embassy in 1883. That was the road from consul general, through minister resident, envoy between 1869 and 1906. Ambassadors were named mutually only in 1907 after the Russo-Japanese war, when Japan earned the rank of Great Power.

Getting first hand information was the key to progress in trading with Japan. Here is the list of the important Hungarian travelers to Japan, those with business ideas are in italic:

Ø      1876 Count Ágost and József Zichy (they met Emperor Meiji and their travel diary was printed in Hungarian), Károly Cziriák tailor, business traveler and correspondent;
Ø      1878 Count Béla Széchenyi and Gustav Kreitner (Széchenyi actually was hunting in Japan. Their detailed travel diary was printed both in German, Hungarian and recently in Japanese);
Ø      1882 Ödön Faragó customs director;
Ø      1883 Ferenc Hopp optician & collector, Attila Szemere journalist & collector;
Ø      1885-1886 Ferenc Gáspár ship surgeon;
Ø      1886 Ede Reményi violinist who played violin for the first time before Emperor Meiji.

But it was equally important that those visitors from Japan who came to Hungary could form their own view of Hungary, separate from that of Austria. It took more than a decade perhaps for the Japanese to recognize Hungary as a separate country with different people, different language and culture. We used and still use the word dualism as definition (when we refer to the Dual Monarchy), but it was difficult to conceptualize not only for the Japanese but also for other countries. What does it mean when foreign policy, military and finance are jointly handled from Vienna by mostly Austrians and all other matters are handled individually from Budapest?

Here is the list of Japanese visitors, who collected information in Hungary about her people, economy and state administration:

Ø      1873 Ambassador Sano Tsunetami visited Budapest and expressed his high appreciation for Hungarian hospitality extended to the six member juror delegation during their visit to Hungary;
Ø      1884 military delegation visited Budapest headed by Prince Oyama Iwao minister of military affairs;
Ø      1885 Takei Morimasa chief forester visited Hungary and made a collaboration agreement with leaders of Hungarian forestry;
Ø      1886 Viscount Tani Tateki minister of agriculture and his five member delegation visited Hungary.

As we see from the lists above the early visits brought essential information in order to orientate the interest on both sides. Japanese authorities identified the field of agriculture and horse-breeding as targets to carry on business.

Regular monarchial trade with Japan started around 1875 through Yokohama port. Primary Japanese export commodities were silk, tea and rice. Japanese foreign trade was in its infancy. Austria-Hungary could sell very few products at the beginning. Although the private entrepreneurs were acting quickly they sensed a growing demand for Japanese goods. Some Budapest shops were selling Chinese and Japanese products already in 1873, the year of Japanese participation at Vienna World Exposition, the Weltausstellung 1873 Wien.

Due to common handling of foreign trade statistics in Austria-Hungary, there is no reliable data on Hungarian goods exported to Japan. The foreign trade was separated in 1893 and since then we have detailed statistics of turnover. Hungary was buying rice and Japan was buying sugar, torpedoes as main commodities and high interest was shown by Japanese in Hungarian horse-breeding. But among items bought in small quantities we can find interesting ones, which are worth describing.

Giovanni Luppis developed the first prototypes of the self-propelled torpedo (Fiume type), and these were among the first military products purchased by the Japanese Navy. The gyroscope and the heater were developed by Hungarian engineers Lajos Orby and János Gesztessy respectively. We do not know the exact date when the first shipment was done from Whitehead factory in Fiume but we can put it as early as mid 1880. Japan was not only a regular buyer, but also committed the factory to develop a 27.5 inch model in 1900. Seventy two Fiume class torpedoes were used successfully in the Russo-Japanese war.

The Japanese Cavalry was interested both in Hungarian cavalryman (hussar) fighting tactics and horse-breeding as well soon after signing the treaty. Several military delegations paid a visit to Mezőhegyes (Bábolna) to see the Arabian stud farm. Three stallions were bought in 1890. Dr. János Torma delivered the horses to Japan by the Lloyd steamer. The trip took two and a half months. That is the first record of our delivering horses to Japan, which was followed by purchasing 32 horses for horse farms in Miyagi, Iwate and Aomori respectively in 1883. Next year they bought pedigree sires for breeding. More and more Japanese grooms and military personnel arrived for longer periods to study horse-breeding and training. Even some romantic relationships developed during their stay. The Yokohama consulate of Austria-Hungary always kept their own horses. Also we have records showing that Japan bought horses and pedigree neat every year between 1897 and 1901 and kept buying regularly until the Great War.

Károly Pongó Kiss, chemist and X-ray radiogram specialist, modified Röntgen’s X-ray tube in 1899 and his tubes could produce the sharpest pictures, which were the best ones world wide for more than a decade. Japan regularly bought his tubes.

The list of imported items from Japan was also rich although the rice and silk had the largest share. Hungary also purchased copper, fish fat, catechu (terra Japonica), wooden furniture, art pieces of wood and metal, ceramics and porcelain pieces, fans, ladies fashion and rice paper. Just to picture the volume of the turnover between Japan and the Monarchy: each year 12-13 steamers left for Kobe and returned to Fiume before and after a decade at the turn of the century.

As Hungary became a stronger business and trading partner, Japan sought to recognize the fact by assigning an honorary consul to Budapest. Mr. Ödön Palotay was appointed with approval of Emperor and King Franz Joseph I. in 1909. That was the year when the first member of the imperial family visited Hungary. Prince Nashimoto Morimasa and his wife during their short visit met with the Austrian Emperor and Hungarian King in Budapest. This visit had historical importance as Prince Nashimoto personally delivered the secret agreement signed by the Japanese Emperor. Japan and Austria secretly agreed to attack Russia in case of a Russian attack on either Austria or Japan. The Japanese-British connections suffered a lot those days due to the British-Russian renewed agreements. It explains why Emperor and King Franz Joseph first called on Prince Nashimoto, overturning the diplomatic rules. The visit of Prince Fushimi and his wife to Budapest was followed in 1910.

Mr. Palotay wrote the first book in Hungarian devoted to Japanese economy and it was published only in 1910. Both the high level visits and opening of the office of Honorary Consulate of Japan in Budapest guaranteed ongoing support at the highest levels for commercial relations.

Japan and her products were highly appreciated by the Hungarian citizens. One could buy ladies fashion ware, porcelain, ceramics, fans, rubber heels, medicine, bosom cream, cosmetics, rice paper, furniture, umbrella, toys, selection tea and utensils and many more from Japan. Most of those goods were fashionable, especially as gifts. Last but not least Japanese plants became popular, and the cultivation of Chrysanthemums and Iris grew rapidly. The pioneer was Mr. Vilmos Mühle who visited Japan to get the best plants. Later Chrysanthemums exhibitions were organized in Budapest yearly. In general we can state Hungarians liked and admired Japanese people.

Since 1869 our economic relations with Japan had been developing, bringing a deeper knowledge of how to trade with each other, how to settle the payments, how to finance contracts. And mutual trust and understanding has been formed among the business circles. Alas, the tensions in the world in those days had been growing. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo on 28th June 1914 suddenly changed the political world climate. The outbreak of the Great War pulled Hungary into the world arena involuntarily and unprepared. Less than a month later Austria declared war with Japan. All diplomatic and commercial contacts were broken abruptly. Hungary became independent after Austria lost the war in 1918. Troublesome years followed and Hungary lost two thirds of her population and territory under the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. 

Hungarian entrepreneurs in Meiji Japan

Our story would not be complete without an appreciation of Hungarian entrepreneurs in Meiji-era Japan. Without a doubt, they were risk-takers and pioneers, embodying the best of an internationalist, cosmopolitan spirit.

Maurice (Moritz) Montague Kuhn although his name does not sound Hungarian arrived to Yokohama from New York in 1868. He was 25 years old, but a born businessman. He registered his company as China and Japan Importers and Exporters and operated at 70A lot in Yokohama in 1869. Soon he needed one more reliable hand and invited from his larger family his nephew Arthur Kuhn from Budapest. Arthur was the travelling agent. He frequently went to Shanghai and Hong Kong to buy and sell and could establish contacts to the highest levels.

Their business started to grow in art and antique items so it was an obvious next step to open a curio shop in the heart of the settlement in 1874. Their shop sold keepsakes, souvenirs, swords, vases, tortoiseshell and ivories, lacquered articles, Japanese art porcelain and many kind of metal, furniture and other goods made by Japanese artisans. They were offering items from China and India and even rare collections of Peking enamels. Their business model was simple – complete service for the customer including made-to-order items to be delivered within the shortest time, including packing, export, and international shipment services to any destination.

The Kuhns had a very good eye for rarities but also they gained deeper and deeper knowledge about their art pieces and figured out how to sell directly to rich customers by visiting royals, museums and famous collectors. Due to the impoverished state of the samurai class in Japan, they were able to buy for cash high valued antique pieces at low prices. As most of their customers were Europeans, they kept furniture made to European designs but employed Japanese motifs. The so called Meiji cabinets, table and chairs were not sellable in Japan.

The business was booming, but the really big challenge arrived for them at the Calcutta International Exhibition in 1883-84, where Kuhn & Co., was representing Japan. Japan had been invited to participate but for several reasons they refused.

The exhibition was opened by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. By sheer good luck Kuhn & Co., was able to take the place of those Singaporean exhibitors, who failed to appear. Arthur Kuhn who was a language talent, had excellent sense to understand difficult situations and had highly-developed managerial talents. Actually he was also in trouble because he allocated and paid for a little stand only. He knew that their large collection of Japanese curios was the finest ever to leave Japan, but he lacked sufficient space to include them in his show.

Arthur Kuhn equally helped the Singaporeans and themselves by arranging the Japanese exhibits into the Straits Court by securing valuable attraction. The place soon was named as Japanese Court which became one of the major attractions. Prince Connaught and duchess Louise Margaret of Prussia paid several visit to see the treasures of Japanese Court and from that time Kuhn & Co. enjoyed the distinguished patronage of the royal highness. The company won 12 gold, 5 silver and 4 bronze medals. The Japanese government was so pleased with Kuhn’s exertions that on his return he received a warm acknowledgement of gratitude from Japan’s first Minister of Foreign Affairs Inoue Kaoru.

The success made them well known and Kuhn & Co., experienced a big growth, so it was reasonable to open a sales branch in Calcutta. It produced sudden high profit which enabled the company to open a new shop in Yokohama. Soon, M. M. Kuhn opened shops in Hong Kong and Singapore as well.

Needing more experienced staff, Kuhn invited Siegfried Komor, a nephew from the large Komor family (there were seven siblings), to work for them. He arrived in Yokohama in 1887 with fresh marketing ideas. Soon he was involved in Kuhn’s curio and watch business and also running the shop on the Queen’s Road in Hong Kong for a short time. Arthur Kuhn took over the Hong Kong shop but after a short operation they closed it and he went to London to open an office there. During his London days he visited Hungary to see his widow mother, and on one of those trips, in 1890, he met the Komor family, including Regina Komor, Siegfried’s younger sister. They married the following year and moved back to Hong Kong.

It is recorded that Tsarevich Nicholas of Russia when in Hong Kong bought extensively at Kuhn’s curio shop, and he was so pleased with his treatment that he did not visit any other curio store. Before he visited Japan in May of 1891 a letter had been written directly to Kuhn & Co., placing an order for many rare items. The Otsu incident put an end to the Tsarevich’ going to Kuhn & Co., curio store.

M. M. Kuhn was satisfied and left for England to work in their representative office there. Everything went smoothly, all shops’ turnover and profit was growing. M. M. Kuhn opened a new business line, a Photographic Gallery downtown Yokohama with famous Tamamura Kozaburo. Gold lacquer photos were the specialty of his studio. He was a great businessman and an experienced one but he made a mistake by keeping all his money and savings at the New Oriental Bank which went bankrupt in the summer of 1892. He trusted his bank since he arrived to Japan. Suddenly he had no cash and to overcome it he sold the Hong Kong shop to his subordinates Arthur Kuhn and Siegfried Komor respectively. They established their own company Kuhn & Komor in Hong Kong on 16th July, 1892. That was the beginning of the separation which took almost two years. Soon they opened their own curio store in Yokohama and a kind of competition began between the two Hungarian companies. Siegfried Komor was managing Yokohama shop and Arthur Kuhn the Hong Kong one.

An important event in Hungarian travel history is the visit of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria to Japan. For his private trip round the world he embarked on SMS Kaiserin Elizabeth in 1892. After visiting several countries he arrived to Nagasaki in 1893 and went on to Yokohama, where he visited the Kuhn & Komor store incognito and purchased a few items. This was in August of 1893.

The young principals of Kuhn & Komor had a clear advantage as they were experts both in Japanese antique and in industrial art goods. Arthur Kuhn was well known not only in Japan but in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Calcutta and Singapore as well. They had a goal to establish shops in those countries. As Kobe became a major international port which was also the destination for most of the steamers from Fiume they decided to open a fine art shop there.

Their next challenge was Shanghai. The birth of Shanghai International Settlement opened the gate for foreign traders to operate on Chinese soil. Shanghai was a place for all kind of business. Perhaps it was a joint idea of Arthur and Siegfried to introduce Japanese art goods in China. To run those shops smoothly they invited more relatives and friends from Hungary and Vienna. Julius Kuhn went to Kobe and Isidor Komor, elder brother of Siegfried Komor, took his position in Shanghai and settled his family in 1899. Samuel Donnenberg a fine and industrial art expert from Vienna was employed by them. Donnenberg was appointed as manager of the newly opened Singapore curio shop in 1899. The international network of Kuhn & Komor curio shops was completed. Their shop in Singapore was opened just to crown the multinational network selling highest quality Japanese curio goods. Yokohama became the center where four more Japanese employees were needed to supply the overseas shops and handle the increased number of customers.

Soon Mr. Antal Elked the first Hungarian banker in Asia arrived from Shanghai as the representative of the Russo-Chinese Bank had settled down in Kobe, who later moved to Yokohama. He was the first among the Hungarians in Japan to marry a Japanese lady, Fukutani Mitsuko from a noble family. As a devoted sport man he helped the development of Japanese horse racing and of figure skating.

The grand old man M. M. Kuhn also went to Shanghai to prepare opening of his Kuhn & Co., curio store as well. Actually the market was big enough so both of them were successful and made profit around the turn of the century. Those were the golden years for both Hungarian competing firms.

M. M. Kuhn was taken to hospital in 1901 and he passed away on 9th of October. He had engaged in the curio business in 1869, from the beginning of his residency in Yokohama. He put his family first in the more developed Shanghai, but later they moved to Yokohama as well. Maurice Kuhn was not a club man but had a good word for everybody who stepped into his stores. He was Hungarian as his son and two daughters were Hungarian citizens. His business was taken over by his son Samuel Henry Kuhn.

Arthur Kuhn and Siegfried Komor had a deep knowledge of international shipping which gave an idea to them to apply for extending their logistic and shipment service to the Fifth National Industrial Exhibition in Osaka, which was held in 1903. That was the first domestic exhibition in Japan where foreign countries could participate including Austria-Hungary. They were commissioned with all transportation services but also as a company they exhibited their goods as well.

Soon they realized in Shanghai better to move to the center of the city. The selection of the second place in Shanghai was quite evident; it should be in the most famous shopping area, on the Nanking Road at its intersection with the Bund in the Central Hotel building. The new curio shop (at 2 Nanking Road) under the name of Kuhn & Komor went into operation in 1905 and customers received it well. Isidor Komor was not only a good merchant but he was ready to help those ones in need.

Around the turn of the century the market trends were changing and the interest started to decline in traditional touristic items. It was pressing that by that time there were fewer and fewer high value antique items accessible as well. Arthur Kuhn and Siegfried Komor sensed the necessity of a breakthrough product. The product idea was simple; let us make products for every day use, but from silver with rich Japanese decoration. Japan was wealthy in silver and the silversmiths of the samurai class were almost jobless. It was a great opportunity and the hunt started for the best silversmiths who were ready to make simple every day products. Kuhn & Komor found master Kurokawa who captured this new opportunity. And soon crowds of foreign visitors were willing to buy shoehorns, brushes for ladies, shaving mug and brush for man, letter-openers, button hooks, boxes for cigarette and small items, cigarette and card cases, cups, goblets, medicine measuring spoons, vases, tea leave holders, aid memory and drink measure all made of 1000 silver. Also complete tea and coffee sets, bowls of different size and shape, ewers, bowl jardinière, trophy cups and much more were made from silver, all in attracting beauty. The competition in every day silver products suddenly became intense and heated, but the talent of the exclusive silversmith of Kuhn & Komor brought them to the top and they were renowned in East Asia for their luxury silver goods, earning the name Asprey of Asia.

After having so many successes in the Far East it was time to organize an exhibition in Budapest at the Hungarian National Museum. The idea was inspired by K. Robert Kertész who visited Japan and was amazed by the collection and shop of Arthur and Siegfried. Their initiative was accepted by Benedek Barátosi Balogh, Emil Delmár, Ernő Kilián and the Far-Eastern Asian Exhibition was opened on 9th October, 1904 and had to be extended until 11th of December because of its popularity. Despite of its being an exhibition for sale, it proved to be a smashing hit as the first of this kind. Arthur Kuhn and Siegfried Komor could sell all the items they displayed. Siegfried gave a lecture at the Jewish Hungarian Literature Association about his twenty year experiences as a businessman in the Far-East.

The Kuhn & Komor Co., Ltd., the grand curiosity dealer network was in full motion. They experienced though difficulties as well e.g. a serious collapse of the building housing their shop at Queen’s Road in Hong Kong. The valuable stock of Messrs. Kuhn & Komor was totally wrecked killing one employee and seriously injuring a few others in 1907.

The curio business shrank and by the beginning of the war it was almost over. The Singapore store and Calcutta representation were closed down. Arthur Kuhn and his wife Regina Komor left for Budapest in 1913 and did not return. Kuhn sold his share to Siegfried Komor who established the Komor & Komor Company, but had the right to use the Kuhn & Komor brand-name as well. Siegfried moved to Hong Kong and Yokohama was put in his son George Komor’s hand. He was 25, but experienced and well-prepared to run all operations.

The First World War broke out on June 28, 1914. Austria decided to fight with Japan and ordered the Austro-Hungarian cruiser, SMS Kaiserin Elizabeth to join the German Fleet at Chingtao German Colony. The war affected the Hungarian businesses at different time and different way. Siegfried Komor’s activity in Hong Kong was suspended in 1915, although he was offered English citizenship in order to continue his activity but he refused it.

Isidor Komor and his son, Paul, were deported by the British from Shanghai to Hamburg, Germany in March 1919. Taking up residence in Stuttgart, Isidor opened a curio shop there and ran it until his return to Shanghai in 1933, where he lived with his son, Paul, dying in 1942. For his humanitarian work on behalf of Hungarian prisoners of war in Russia, Archduke Franz Salvator presented Isidor with the Cross of the Hungarian Red Cross in 1918.

Siegfried Komor could get back to business in 1919. He returned to curio world and his son Henry Solon helped him, but Henry Solon was also involved in vehicle business. Siegfried passed away in 1935 in Hong Kong.

Samuel Henry Kuhn was also ordered to leave Shanghai, but his mother could stay because his sister was married to an Englishman.

George Komor was the only lucky one who could run his business in Japan during the war. Only the Yokohama and Kobe shop remained active from the international network of Hungarians. After the war George could extend his activity to Tokyo and opened his fashion shop opposite to Imperial Hotel. His business started to boom but the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake destroyed his Yokohama and Tokyo shop, his house collapsed and got fire and his pregnant wife perished in the firestorm aftermath in front of his eyes. Practically he lost everything, but he could stand up again and he was in business until 1970. He died in Yokohama in 1976.

Go szeicsó wo arigató gozaimashita!
Thank you for your attention!

The lecture was prepared on the research of Sándor Kiss. His book titled In Allurement of Japan will be published in 2017. The author used several sources to collect material, including personal interviews with living family members and friends. He flipped for information German, Japanese, Hungarian and English newspapers, magazines and trade directories and related books. He researched actively collections of Yokohama Archives of History, Kobe City Archives, National Diet Library of Japan, Library of Stanford University, National Archives of Hungary, National Széchényi Library, Library of Hopp Ferenc Múzeum, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv des Österreichischen Staatsarchivs and many more libraries and museums. For Hungarian daily press he researched Arcanum Digital Database. Last but not least he collected and double checked information on World Wide Web sources.

Consultant and text editor: Valerie Komor

[1] Hübner, count Joseph Alexander: A Ramble Round the World, 1871 Japan. Volume No. 2., Macmillan, London, 1874, 123.


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